Cancer, one of the most dangerous and fatal disease is wrecking a havoc on the mankind. N numbers of cancers have been detected by the medical fraternity till date, and the process is still going on. Day in and day out, we hear some new kind of a cancer. Cancer has caused a spell on men and women equally. Where women suffer a lot from breast and cervical cancers, men are the soft target of cancers like Penile Cancer, the cancer of penis.
What Is Penile Cancer?
In the easiest language, we can say that, penile cancer is the cancer of penis. It is a malignant growth which is found on the skin or in the tissue of penis. About 95% of the cancers of penis are identified as squamous cell carcinomas. But, there are other kinds of penile cancers too.
What Are The Risk Factors Of Penile Cancer?
The major factors that increase the chances of getting penile cancer are:
- Penile cancers occur in men over 55 years of age. It rarely occurs in young males.
- Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the major risk factor for developing penile cancer.
- HIV infection increases the chances of getting penile cancer as many as 8 times.
- Studies show that about half of men that suffer from penile cancer have genital warts. Genital or perianal warts increase the susceptibility of getting penile cancer by 3.7 times.
- Balanitis, i.e., inflammation of glans penis increases the risk of penile cancer by 3.1 times.
- Any injury to penis like abrasion or little tears also increases susceptibility to penile cancer by 3.9 times.
- Lichen sclerosus also increases chance of penile cancer.
- Smegma, which is a white substance accumulating beneath the foreskin, increases the risk of penile cancer.
- Circumcision during childhood and in infants prevent from penile cancer, but if performed in adults, it may increase the risk of getting penile cancer
- Phimosis and Paraphimosis are also associated with increased risk of penile cancer.
- Men who are habitual of smoking or chewing tobacco are at a greater risk.
- Men who have psoriasis and have undergone treatment with UV light and drug Psoralen are susceptible of getting penile cancer.
- Poor hygiene is also a leading risk factor.
What Are The Causes Of Penile Cancer?
The exact cause of penile cancer is still a topic of mystery. It hasn’t been ruled out yet. But, occurrence of penile cancer is closely related with the risk factors of penile cancer.
What Are The Symptoms Of penile Cancer?
The symptoms of penile cancer include:
- A sore or growth on penis for more than 4 weeks.
- Bleeding and a foul smelling discharge from the penis
- Bleeding from under the foreskin
- A rash on the penis
- Change in the colour of foreskin or penis
The advanced symptoms are:
- A lump in the groin
- Weight loss
- Pain in abdomen
- Pain in bones
What is The Treatment Of Penile Cancer?
The treatment modalities for Penile Cancer are:
- Wide local excision
- Laser surgery
- Penectomy (Amputation of penis)
- Radiation Therapy in conjunction with surgery to reduce the risk of recurrence
- Chemotherapy along with less invasive surgery, in early stages
- A combination of radiation therapy, chemotherapy and surgery is indicated in advanced stages.